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ISLAMICFINDER

Friday, 31 October 2008

Ramalan Peramal-Peramal Terkemuka Tentang Al-Mahdi

Selain keterangan daripada setiap agama besar di dunia ini, terdapat pula sekumpulan peramal yang terkenal di dunia yang turut meramalkan kedatangan Imam Mahdi atau seorang pemimpin yang bertaraf dunia, yang akan turun untuk menjalankan pemerintahan yang sangat adil, pada zaman ini, pada abad ini, kurun ini dan alaf ini. Memang meramal sesuatu ramalan adalah suatu perbuatan yang buruk, boleh mendatangkan impak besar kepada akidah kita. Namun ramalan yang bertepatan maksudnya dengan perkabaran hadis-hadis, berita-berita daripada asar para sahabat RA, kasyaf para wali dan firasat para mukmin tidak salah jika disebutkan, karena keterangan mereka ini sebenarnya membantu menjelaskan lagi maksud hadis-hadis, asar-asar, kasyaf-kasyaf dan firasat-firasat itu. Hal ini sebenarnya tidak menjejaskan iman kita jika betul cara dan tempatnya.

Sebagian mereka ini adalah peramal semata-mata, manakala sebagian lagi adalah orang-orang besar bagi agama masing-masing, yang telah mencapai taraf kasyaf pula, yaitu menurut pandangan agama mereka.

Antara peramal bertaraf antarabangsa yang amat terkenal pada hari ini adalah Michel de Nostredame atau Nostradamus, suatu nama yang hampir sudah tidak perlu diperkenalkan lagi, karena sudah begitu terkenalnya. Ramalan-ramalannya sudah umum tersebar dan bukan sedikit pula yang sudah menjadi kenyataan. Antara ramalannya yang amat menggoncangkan dunia Barat ialah bahwa seorang pemimpin baru bertaraf dunia akan muncul, Islam akan kembali menguasai dunia pada alaf baru ini, dan seterusnya memerangi Kristian-Eropah.

Ramalannya bahwa seorang pemimpin baru beragama Islam akan muncul dan seterusnya menguasai seluruh dunia adalah berdasarkan ramalan beliau seperti berikut:

In the year 1999 and seven months
from the sky will come the great King of Terror.
He will bring back to life the King of the Mongols;
Before and after, war reigns.


Tempat muncul pemimpin tersebut adalah di sebuah negara di sebelah Timur, bukan di negara Arab atau di sebelah Barat, berdasarkan ramalan berikut:

From the three water signs (seas) will be born a man
who will celebrate Thursday as his feast day.
His renown, praise, reign, and power will grow
on land and sea, bringing trouble to the East.


Pemimpin berkenaan akan memimpin pasukan tenteranya
yang besar jumlahnya untuk menyerang dan menakluki Eropah,
dan dibantu oleh seluruh umat Islam.

One who the infernal gods of Hannibal
will cause to be reborn, terror of all mankind
Never more horror nor the newspapers tell of worse in the past,
then will come to the Romans through Babel (Iraq).


Pemimpin berkenaan memerangi, mengalahkan dan memasuki Eropah dengan memakai serban biru, membawa undang-undang Islam untuk diamalkan oleh seluruh penduduk Eropah, dan peristiwa besar inilah yang amat menakutkan setiap hati pemimpin Kristian dan Yahudi.

Anak murid Wali Songo yang amat terkenal di Pulau Jawa, Sabdopalon, turut menyebutkan bahwa Imam Mahdi akan dibaiat oleh sembilan tokoh Wali Ghausul Alam yang diketuai oleh seseorang dari Malaysia yang disebutkan sebagai Syeikh Malaya. Beliau menyebutkan bahwa,

“Imam Mahdi datang dengan pakaian serba putih dibantu oleh Rijalu’llah Ghaib atau juga disebut Wali Ghosul’alam sembilan yang di antaranya adalah Seh Malaya yang turun di Tanah Arab.”

Salah seorang Wali Songo yaitu Sunan Gunung Jati, turut membuat ramalan berdasarkan kasyaf dari Allah bahwa kebangkitan Islam kali kedua ini akan dipimpin oleh seorang tokoh yang memakai serban. Dia dikatakan amat berpegang teguh pada sorban kanjeng (ekor serban) Nabi Muhammad SAW. Yang dimaksudkan dengan sorban kanjeng itu adalah pemimpin umat yang terakhir, sesuai dengan kedudukan ekor serban yang terletak di hujung sekali. Sorban kanjeng juga bermaksud mengikut benar-benar setiap sunnah yang diamalkan oleh baginda Rasulullah SAW semasa hayatnya dahulu.

Peramal dari Jawa yang disebut sebagai Pangeran Wijil, yang mengarang Kitab Rangka Jayabaya, turut membuat ramalan bahwa pemimpin yang dimaksudkan itu, lahir di Makkah, memakai serban yang berlambang bunga tujuh cabang, orangnya selalu kesandung kesampar. Dia tidak pernah diduga akan menjadi pemimpin umat manusia pada suatu hari nanti. Dikatakan lebih lanjut lagi bahwa sebelum raja baru ini muncul, akan berlaku huru-hara dan kerusuhan. Dan raja itulah yang akan menjadi orang tengah atau pengaman di antara pihak yang sedang bergaduh itu. Tanpa diduga-duga, orang ramai pun bersetuju melantiknya sebagai pemimpin mereka karena jasanya yang amat besar itu dan keupayaannya yang menakjubkan itu.

Demikianlah sedikit lagi keistimewaan yang ada pada pribadi yang bergelar Imam Mahdi ini. Memang Imam Mahdi itu sungguh-sungguh adalah Orang Allah, orang yang dibesarkan karena sememangnya orang besar Tuhan, besar namanya, besar kedudukannya, patut dibesarkan dan perlu disebut secara besar-besaran pula. Sambutan kepada kemunculannya kelak, juga akan dibuat secara penuh besar-besaran, amat meriah, penuh gembira, sepenuh-penuh kesyukuran, sesuai dengan kedudukannya sebagai orang besar Allah itu. Tidak ada sambutan yang lebih besar dan meriah selain daripada sambutan terhadap kedatangannya ke dunia ini.

Dan, ekoran daripada kepercayaan kepada munculnya Imam Mahdi yang sangat istimewa inilah, muncul dari semasa ke semasa orang-orang yang mendakwa dirinya sebagai Imam Mahdi yang ditunggu-tunggu itu. Mereka ini langsung tidak berasa malu dengan dakwaan kosong mereka itu. Setelah beberapa lama masa berlalu, ternyata pula dakwaan mereka itu adalah palsu dan tujuan mereka di sebalik dakwaan itu terbongkar. Selalunya, mereka langsung tidak berjaya mendirikan kerajaan Mahdiyahnya, malah gagal pula mengubah keadaan masyarakat setempatnya kepada yang lebih baik, sedangkan yang demikian itu wajib berlaku karena telah disebutkan oleh hadis-hadis.

Artikel ini dirujuk daripada web http://www.bicaraaddin.com/

Imam Mahdi Muncul dengan Membawa Bendera Rasulullah SAW

A. Kata sahabat RA,

“Al-Mahdi akan keluar dengan membawa bendera yang sama seperti bendera Nabi SAW iaitu tanpa jahitan, berwarna hitam dan lebar, yang mana bendera ini tidak pernah berkibar lagi setelah wafat Nabi SAW, sehinggalah saat kemunculan al-Mahdi.”

B. Kata sahabat RA,

“Al-Mahdi akan keluar daripada Makkah dengan membawa bendera Rasulullah SAW.”

C. Kata tabiin RH,

“Al-Mahdi akan membawa bendera Rasulullah SAW, lengkap dengan cap-capnya sekali.”

D. Kata tabiin RH,

“Pertama kali bendera yang akan dikibarkan oleh al-Mahdi adalah ketika perjalanannya menuju pembaiatannya di Turki.”

E. Kata Qatadah RH, sabda Nabi SAW,

“Al-Mahdi akan keluar dari Makkah menuju ke Madinah. Orang ramai akan memaksanya keluar lalu dia dibaiat antara Rukun dengan Maqam sedangkan dia tidak menyukainya.” (Nuaim bin Hammad)

Bendera Hitam yang dimaksudkan itu adalah bendera kepunyaan Rasulullah SAW dahulu. Bendera itu bukan sebarang bendera dan bukan pula calang-calang bendera. Bendera ini adalah lambang kekuasaan Islam ke atas seluruh dunia. Bendera ini adalah juga lambang kekuatan rohani para pengikutnya, yang jumlahnya tidak ramai. Bendera ini juga adalah lambang tegaknya sunnah di atas segala kebatilan dan khurafat yang sebelumnya amat bermaharaja lela. Dengan adanya bendera Rasulullah SAW ini, nasib umat Islam di seluruh dunia amatlah terbela dan digeruni oleh mana-mana lawan pun. Bendera ini adalah lambang kekuasaan Islam, yang apabila bendera ini ditegakkan, maka akan musnah dan robohlah segala kekuasaan yang bukan Islam di tangan pemegang bendera ini, iaitu Imam Mahdi.


Oleh
Yusuf bin Abdullah bin Yusuf Al-Wabil MA


AL-MAHDI
Pada akhir zaman akan keluar seorang laki-laki dari golongan Ahlul-Bait (keturunan Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) dan Allah mengokohkan Dinnul Islam dengannya pada saat itu. Dia berkuasa selama tujuh tahun. Pada waktu itu dia memenuhi bumi dengan keadilan sebagaimana sebelumnya dipenuhi dengan kelaliman dan kezhaliman. Pada masanya umat manusia merasakan nikmat yang belum pernah dirasakan sebelumnya; bumi rnengeluarkan tumbuh-tumbuhan, langit menurunkan hujan, dan memberikan penghasilan (kekayaan) yang tak terhitung banyaknya.

lbnu Katsir rahimahullah berkata, "Pada waktu itu banyak buah-buahan, tanam-tanaman subur, harta melimpah, kekuasaan berjalan dengan baik, agama berdiri tegak, permusuhan sirna. dan kebaikan bersemarak." [An-Nihayah Fil-Fitan wal-Ma-lahim 1:31 dengan tahqiq DR. Thaha Zaini]


NAMANYA DAN SIFAT-SIFATNYA
laki-laki ini namanya seperti nama Rasulullah saw, dan nama ayahnya seperti nama ayah Rasulullah saw. Maka dia bernama Muhammad atau Ahmad bin Abdullah. Dia berasal dari keturunan Fatimah binti Rasulullah Saw, dari anak cucu Hasan bin Ali Radhiyallahu 'anhu

Ibnu Katsir berkata tentang Al-Mahdi, "Dia bernama Muhammad bin Abdullah Al-Alawi Al-Fathimi al-Hasani radhiyallahu 'anhu." [Ibid, halamann 29].

Dan sifat-sifat tubuhnya antara lain mukanya lebar dan hidungnya mancung.

TEMPAT KELUARNYA
Al-Mahdi akan muncul dari arah (kawasan) timur. Dalam sebuah hadits dari Tsauban ra, ia berkata: Rasulullah saw bersabda:


"Akan berperang tiga orang di sisi perbendaharaanmu. Mereka semua adalah putera khalifah. Tetapi tak seorang pun di antara mereka yang berhasil menguasainya. Kemudian muncullah bendera-bendera hitam dari arah timur, lantas mereka membunuh kamu dengan suatu pembunuhan yang belum pernah dialami oleh kaum sebelummu. " Kemudian beliau Saw menyebutkan sesuatu yang aku tidak hafal, lalu bersabda: "Maka jika kamu melihatnya, berbai'atlah walaupun dengan merangkak di atas salju, karena dia adalah khalifah Allah 'Al-Mahdi'�. "[1]

Ibnu Katsir rahimahullah berkata, "Yang dimaksud dengan perbendaharaan didalam hadits ini ialah perbendaharaan Ka'bah. Akan ada tiga orang putera khalifah (ia berperang di sisinya untuk memperebutkannya hingga datangnya akhir zaman, lalu keluarlah Al-Mahdi yang akan muncul dari negeri Timur, bukan dari dalam bangunan di bawah tanah Samira seperti anggapan orang-orang Rafidhah yang jahil bahwa Al-.Mahdi sekarang berada di sana dan mereka menanti keluarnya pada akhir zaman. Anggapan semacam ini merupakan igauan yang hina dari syetan, karena tidak ada dalil dan keterangannya sama sekali baik dari Al-Qur'an maupun As-Sunnah, dari perkataan atau pemikiran orang sehat maupun dari istihsam."
Selanjutnya beliau mengatakan, "Dan beliau dikukuhkan oleh penduduk masyriq (kawasan timur) yang membantunya, menegakkan kekuasaannya, dan membangun pilar-pilarnya, dan bendera mereka juga berwarna hitam, yaitu warna yang melambangkan sikap merendahkan diri, karena bendera Rasulullah saw juga berwarna hitam yang diberi nama Al-'Uqab.... Maksudnya, bahwa Al-Mahdi yang terpuji dan dijanjikan akan muncul pada akhir zaman, kemunculannya adalah dari wilayah timur dan dia dibai'at di sisi Baitullah sebagaimana ditunjuki oleh beberapa hadits. "[2]


[Disalin dari kitab Asyratus Sa'ah edisi Indonesia Tanda-Tanda Hari Kiamat, Penulis Yusuf bin Abdullah bin Yusuf Al-Wabl MA, Penerjemah Drs As'ad Yasin, Penerbit CV Pustaka Mantiq]

Dipetik dan dirujuk daripada web http://www.bicaraaddin.com/

DALIL SISTEM KHILAFAH AKAN MUNCUL SEBELUM KIAMAT

1. Dalil Al Quran

Dan Allah telah menjanjikan kepada orang2 beriman di antara kamu dan yg mengerjakan amal soleh, bahawa mereka sesungguhnya akan dijadikan khalifah yg berkuasa di muka bumi ini
sebagaimana telah dijadikan khalifah orang2 sebelum mereka, dan sungguh Dia akan meneguhkan bagi mereka agama yg telah diredhaiNya untuk mereka, dan dia benar2 akan menukar [keadaan] mereka, sesudah mereka berada dalam ketakutan menjadi aman sentiasa’
Surah An Nur: 55

2. Dalil Al Hadis
Dari Nukman bin Basyir, katanya…

‘Suatu ketika kami sedang duduk2 di Masjid Nabawi dan Basyir itu seorang yg tidak banyak bercakap.

Datanglah Abu Saklabah lalu berkata
” Wahai Basyir bin Saad, adakah kamu hafaz hadis Rasulullah tentang para pemerintah?’

Huzaifah RA lalu segera menjawab.
” Aku hafaz akan khutbah Rasulullah SAW itu.”

Maka duduklah Abu Saklabah Al Khusyna untuk mendengar hadis berkenaan.

Maka kata Huzaifah RA, Rasulullah SAW telah bersabda.

“Telah berlaku Zaman Kenabian ke atas kamu, maka berlakulah Zaman Kenabian sebagaimana yang Allah kehendaki. Kemudian Allah mengangkat zaman itu seperti
yg Dia kehendaki.”

Kemudian belakulah zaman Kekhalifahan (Khulafaur Rasyidin) yang berjalan sepertimana Zaman Kenabian. Maka berlakulah zaman itu sebagaimana yang Allah kehendaki. Kemudian Allah mengangkatnya.

Lalu berlakulah zaman pemerintahan yang mengigit (Zaman Fitnah -keamiran/beraja /zaman kesultanan ) Berlakulah zaman itu seperti yang Allah kehendaki. Kemudian Allah mengangkatnya pula.

Kemudian berlakulah zaman penindasan dan zaman penzaliman(Zaman pemerintahan diktator dan demokrasi) dan berlakulah zaman itu seperti mana yang Allah kehendaki.

Kemudian berlakulah pula zaman kekhalifahan (Imam Mahdi dan Nabi Isa as ) yang berjalan di atas cara hidup Zaman Kenabian.”

Kemudian Rasulullah SAW pun diam….

~Hadis ini diriwayatkan oleh Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal di dalam
kitabnya Musnad Al Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Juzuk 4, halaman 273.
Juga terdapat dalam kitab As-Silsilatus Sahihah, Jilid 1,
hadis nombor 5.]


Dipetik dari laman http://heliconia.wordpress.com/

Perbezaan pengiraan kalender Islam dan Kristian

Oleh Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen Shaikh Mohd Salleh

Pengiraan takwim Islam berlandaskan pergerakan dan kedudukan bulan, berbeza dengan pengiraan sistem AD dan CE yang melihat kepada kedudukan dan pergerakan matahari.. Masyarakat Islam kita hari ini, terutamanya generasi muda sering terikut-ikut budaya Barat ketika menyambut tahun baru. Mereka sepatutnya lebih mengutamakan sambutan 1 Muharram

Perkembangan takwim banyak berhubung kait dengan faktor keagamaan dan sains. Dalam hal ini, ada dua cara pengiraan takwim, iaitu dengan menggunakan matahari (syamsiah atau solar) dan bulan (qamariah atau lunar).

Berkenaan penetapan takwim, Allah berfirman yang membawa maksud:

"Dialah yang menjadikan matahari bersinar-sinar (terang-benderang) dan bulan bercahaya, dan Dialah yang menentukan perjalanan tiap-tiap satu itu (berpindah-pindah) pada tempat-tempat peredarannya (masing-masing) supaya kamu dapat mengetahui bilangan tahun dan kiraan masa. Allah tidak menjadikan semuanya itu melainkan dengan adanya faedah dan gunanya yang sebenar. Allah menjelaskan ayat-Nya (tanda-tanda kebesaran-Nya) satu persatu bagi kaum yang mahu mengetahui (hikmat sesuatu yang dijadikan-Nya."
(Surah Yunus, ayat 5)


Secara umumnya, orang Rom mempopularkan penggunaan takwim solar dan pada peringkat awal, penggunaan takwim dikira bermula daripada masa bandar Rom diasaskan.

Tarikh yang digunakan ditanda dengan perkataan Rumawi iaitu ab urbe condita (auc) yang bermaksud “dari tarikh pengasasan bandar”. Andai kata tarikh ini masih dipakai hari ini, kita sekarang berada pada tahun 2757 auc.

Apabila Julius Caesar menawan Mesir pada tahun 48 sebelum Masihi, beliau memperkenalkan apa yang dipanggil takwim solar Julian (bersempena dengan namanya) pada tahun 709 auc atau tahun 46 sebelum Masihi.Takwim ini dikatakan diperkenalkan setelah Julius Caesar meminta seorang ahli falak bernama Sosigenes untuk membuat perubahan kepada takwim yang sedia ada pada ketika itu.Takwim baru ini mempunyai 12 bulan dalam setahun dengan bilangan hari sebanyak 365 hari dengan tambahan sehari bagi setiap empat tahun.

Namun begitu, sejarah merekodkan bahawa kesilapan berlaku dalam pengiraan takwim Julian ini apabila tambahan satu hari pada setiap empat tahun tidak dilakukan, sebaliknya tambahan ini dilakukan pada setiap tiga tahun.Ini berlaku antara tahun 43 sebelum Masihi sehingga tahun 10 sebelum Masihi.

Augustus Caesar yang menggantikan Julius Caesar sebagai pemerintah Empayar Rom mengarahkan supaya pengiraan tahun lompat ini dihentikan dan hanya disambung pada tahun empat selepas Masihi.

Augustus Caesar juga membuat beberapa perubahan kepada jumlah hari dalam sebulan. Pada asalnya, dikatakan bulan Februari mempunyai 29 hari dan 30 hari bagi tahun lompat.Februari kehilangan satu hari kerana pada satu ketika, dua daripada bulan dalam takwim Julian dinamakan Julai (sempena Julius Caesar) dan Ogos (sempena Augustus Caesar).

Pada asalnya Ogos hanya mempunyai 30 hari, namun Augustus Caesar menganggap dirinya sama hebat jika tidak lebih hebat daripada Julius Caesar, maka beliau telah memerintahkan supaya bulan Ogos ditambah satu hari. Ini menjadikan jumlah hari dalam bulan Ogos sebanyak 31 sama seperti bulan Julai.

Kesan pembesaran Empayar Rom menyaksikan penyebaran penggunaan takwim Julian yang kemudian turut diterima pakai gereja Kristian.Pada tahun 527 Masihi, seorang paderi Rom bernama Dionysius Exiguus memperkenalkan sistem pengiraan takwim yang diberi nama Anno Domini atau AD (yang memulakan tarikh 1 AD sempena kelahiran Isa al-Masih). Orang Islam menggelarkan pengiraan ini sebagai al-Masihiah atau Masihi.

Menariknya, berlaku kekeliruan dengan tarikh lahirnya Nabi Isa apabila Dionysius Exiguus menyatakan bahawa Nabi Isa lahir pada tahun 754 auc tetapi ramai yang beranggapan bahawa kiraan Exuguus tidak tepat dan mempunyai ralat sebanyak beberapa tahun.

Jika ditinjau panjang purata setahun bagi takwim Julian ialah 365.25 hari dengan satu hari ditambah setiap empat tahun, ini jauh berbeza dengan panjang sebenar bagi setahun.Namun demikian, di kalangan ahli astronomi sendiri, panjang sebenar tempoh satu tahun dipertikaikan.
Pendapat popular berpegang kepada purata tahun tropika iaitu 365.2422 hari dalam setahun manakala satu lagi pendapat mengatakan bahawa panjang purata setahun ialah 365.2424 hari.

Beza nilai ini ialah masing-masing 0.0078 hari (11 minit 13.8 saat) dan 0.0076 hari (10 minit 56.4 saat).

Akibatnya setiap 131 tahun, takwim Julian ini akan berganjak menyebabkan ia tidak lagi selari dengan perubahan musim solstis dan ekuinoks yang merujuk kepada kedudukan matahari dengan bumi dan ini menjadi sumber pengiraan yang penting bagi hari-hari kebesaran Kristian.

Menjelang abad ke-16, tarikh Hari Easter yang sepatutnya berlaku semasa Ekuinoks Musim Bunga telah memasuki musim panas.Bagi mengatasi masalah ini, Pope Paul III mendapatkan beberapa ahli astronomi seperti Christopher Clavius untuk mencari penyelesaian kepada keadaan gawat itu dan kajian dilakukan sehinggalah Gregory XIII menjadi Pope Gereja Roman Katolik.Beberapa cadangan dikemukakan dan Gregory XIII memilih cadangan Clavius. Pada 24 Februari 1582, beliau memperkenalkan beberapa perubahan kepada pengiraan takwim dan ini dikenali sebagai "Takwim Gregorian".

Perubahan yang diperkenalkan adalah seperti berikut:

Sebanyak 10 hari ditolak daripada takwim yang dipakai pada ketika itu menjadikan hari yang menyusul selepas Khamis, 4 Oktober 1582 sebagai Jumaat 15 Oktober, 1582 (5 Oktober 1582 jika menurut kiraan Julian).

Bagi pengiraan tahun lompat Julian, tahun itu mestilah boleh dibahagi dengan angka 4. Dalam perubahan yang diperkenalkan melalui takwim Gregorian, sesuatu tahun lompat itu hanya dikira jika sama ada boleh dibahagi dengan 400.

Oleh itu, setiap tahun yang boleh dibahagi dengan 4 ialah tahun lompat melainkan jika boleh dibahagi dengan 100 dan tidak dengan 400.

Ini menjadikan tahun-tahun 1600 dan 2000 sebagai tahun lompat tetapi tidak demikian bagi tahun-tahun 1700, 1800, 1900 dan 2100.

Hari pertama tahun baru ditetapkan pada 1 Januari setiap tahun.

Hari bagi tahun lompat ditetapkan pada 29 Februari.

Penggunaan takwim berkenaantersebar serta-merta ke negara Roman Katolik seperti Sepanyol, Itali, Portugal, Poland, Perancis dan Luxembourg dan secara berperingkat digunakan di negara seperti Jerman, Belgium, Switzerland, Belanda dan Hungary.Britain hanya menggunakan takwim ini dalam tahun 1752 dengan perubahan pada tarikh dilakukan pada Khamis 14 September 1752 (tarikh ini ditukarkan daripada 2 September 1752).Koloni British di seluruh dunia, termasuk Tanah Melayu, turut melakukan perubahan itu.

Akibat daripada penggunaan takwim Gregorian ini, terdapat dua tarikh bagi satu hari yang sama antara abad ke-16 dan ke-18, bergantung kepada takwim mana yang digunakan.Mengikut konvensyen, tarikh yang menggunakan takwim Julian ditandakan dengan “OS” yakni old style manakala tarikh yang menggunakan takwim Gregorian ditandakan dengan “NS” atau new style.

Negara lain di dalam dunia turut menggunakan takwim Gregorian ini secara berperingkat misalnya Jepun (1873), Mesir (1875), Eropah Timur (antara 1912 dan 1919), Russia 1918) dan Turki (1927).

Ringkasan AD yang diterima pakai bagi pengiraan takwim Gregorian ialah ringkasan kepada “Anni Domini Nostri Jesu Christi” yang bermaksud “dalam tahun Tuhan Kami Jesus Christ.”

Takwim ini mempunyai konotasi kepada agama Kristain, oleh sebab itu mungkin menyebabkan rasa tidak senang hati di kalangan penganut Islam dan Yahudi khususnya, maka ringkasan AD diganti dengan CE iaitu “Christian Era” manakala BC (“Before Christ”) diganti dengan BCE (untuk Before Christian Era).Namun demikian, di kalangan orang Islam di Malaysia dan rantau Melayu umumnya, ringkasan SM (sebelum Masihi) dan TM (tahun Masihi) lebih kerap digunakan.

Bagi penganut Kristian, sambutan tahun baru mempunyai konotasi keagamaan kerana tahun baru menandakan ulang tahun kelahiran al-Masih namun, kepada orang lain sambutan itu mempunyai konotasi yang berbeza.Perubahan angka pada tahun hanya berlaku sekali setahun dan semua ini mempunyai kaitan dengan keadaan manusia itu sendiri.Jika dilihat kepada sejarah, 2004 misalnya menyaksikan banyak pertumpahan darah dan tragedi yang berlaku di Iraq, Sudan, Russia, Thailand dan beberapa negara lain.

Bermulanya 2005 dilihat sebagai satu tanda harapan untuk memulakan kehidupan yang lebih baik tetapi yang menjadi persoalan sekarang, adakah wajar sambutan tahun baru disambut oleh orang Islam dengan pesta, hiburan dan hedonisme? Tiada salahnya menyambut ketibaan tahun baru jika niat yang disertakan adalah untuk membawa perubahan ke arah yang lebih baik.

Sudah tentulah berpesta dan bersuka-ria tanpa mengikut lunas syariat Islam yang dilarang dan ditegah. Menurut pandangan Islam, peredaran masa ialah satu proses alam yang ditetapkan Allah bagi dunia ini. Malah di dalam al-Quran banyak ayat yang diturunkan menegaskan pentingnya masa dalam kehidupan manusia.

Jika ditinjau secara logik, 1 Januari hanyalah satu hari dalam setahun yang tidak mempunyai apa-apa signifikan besar kepada kehidupan manusia melainkan hanya menjadi tanda bermulanya era baru berasaskan pengiraan takwim solar yang mempunyai asal-usulnya kepada agama Kristian.

Islam mempunyai kiraan takwim sendiri apabila Saidina Umar al-Khattab menetapkan bermulanya peristiwa hijrah Rasulullah sebagai tahun bermulanya pengiraan takwim Islam. Pengiraan takwim Islam berlandaskan pergerakan dan kedudukan bulan berbeza dengan pengiraan sistem AD dan CE yang melihat kepada kedudukan dan pergerakan matahari.

Orang Kristian menggunakan pengiraan berdasarkan solar kerana hari kebesarannya banyak membabitkan kedudukan matahari dan pergerakan musim seperti Hari Easter dan seumpamanya. Golongan muda nampaknya begitu ghairah dengan sambutan tahun baru tetapi sayangnya cara berseronok itu tidak selari dengan kehendak agama Islam.

Sambutan tahun baru perlu dilakukan dengan hasrat untuk berubah ke satu keadaan yang lebih baik malangnya apa yang kita lihat ialah seolah-olah budaya hedonisme yang menerap masuk membawa bersamanya keruntuhan moral dan akhlak. Satu perkara yang mungkin wajar direnungkan ialah mengapa orang Islam begitu beria meraikan 1 Januari dan pada waktu yang sama seperti tidak mempedulikan 1 Muharam?

Sepatutnya konsep hijrah yang dibawa oleh perayaan Maal Hijrah perlu dihayati oleh setiap umat Islam. Adakah Maal Hijrah setiap tahun hanyalah satu cuti umum dalam kalendar tahunan kita semata-mata?

Penulis adalah Felo Kanan Pusat Sains dan Teknologi di Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia (IKIM). Artikel dirujuk daripada http://halaqah.net/

Tuesday, 28 October 2008

Numerical Miracles from the Qur'an

It wasn't until the 1900's that a Muslim scholar and his students counted and indexed every word from the Holy Qur'an. This provided a new form of analysis that scientifically supports the divine origin of the book. Dr. Tariq Al Suwaidan iscovered some verses in the Holy Qur'an that mention one thing is equal to another. For example, man is equal to woman. Likewise, the number of times the word MAN appears in the Qur'an is 24 & the number of times the word WOMAN appears is also 24. Upon further analysis of other verses, he discovered that this is consistent throughout the whole Qur'an, where it states that one thing is like another. The results are astonishing. For example: Let's examine the word Dunya-(the life of this world) & Aakhirat (the life of the hereafter). The number of times Dunya & Aakhirat are mentioned is 115 times each. The list of examples go on:



* Malaikah or angels are mentioned 88 times, while Shayton or (Satan) is also mentioned 88 times
* The word Life is mentioned 145 times & Death 145
* Benefit is mentioned 50 times & the word Corrupt is also mentioned 50
* The name for the King of the Devils Eblees is mentioned 11 times, and seeking protection from Eblees is likewise mentioned 11 times
* The word for spending (sadaqah) occurs 73 times & satisfaction 73
* Magic occurs 60 & Fitnah (dissuasion, misleading) occurs 60
* Mind - 49 & Noor (light) 49
* Zakat (paying the required poor due) 32 & Barakah (increase of blessings in wealth and provision) 32
* The word Museebah (calamity) 75 & the word thanks 75
* Tongue - 25 & Sermon - 25
* The word People - 50 & the word Messengers - 50 times
* Muslimeen - 41 & Jihad-(struggling) - 41
* Gold - 8 & the easy life - 8
* Hardship - 114 & Patience - 114
* The name of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) - 4 & Sharee'ah (Muhammad's teachings) - 4
* Man - 24 & Woman - 24

Further numerical miracles present themselves. Such as "Salah" or PRAYER is mentioned 5 times, just as there are 5 daily prayers. Also the word "MONTHS" is mentioned - 12 times and the word "DAYS" is mentioned 365 times in the Holy Qur'an. Just a coincidence? One of the most astonishing is that the word "SEA" is mentioned 32 times, while the word "LAND" is mentioned 13 times. These two number's significance is clear in the below equation: The total surface of the earth can be figured by adding:

SEA + LAND (32+13=45). By taking the number representing the SEA and dividing it by the Total Mass, which is (both land & sea area combined) you will arrive at the correct calculation for the ocean vs. land coverage of the earth.



%SEA = 32/45 * 100 = 71


%LAND =13/45 * 100 = 29




Modern science has only recently discovered the fact that all water on Earth covers precisely 71% of the its surface, while the land covers 29%.


With these miracles and more listed in the Qur'an, one could convincingly argue the authenticity of the Qur'an. God, the All-Mighty, the All-Wise has certainly sent these evidences as a blessing for the believers and as yet another sign supporting the truthfulness of His Glorious Recitation - Al Qur'an Al Kareem. As Allah (S.W.T.) says: "(This is) a book, the verses where of are perfected (in every sphere of knowledge), and then explained in detail from one (God) who is All-Wise and Well-Acquainted (with all things)." Not only are Dr. Tariq's findings fascinating, but it is interesting to point out the importance of some of the correlations, for instance, hardship with patience, and mind with light. These correlations may provide additional insight to the meaning of the Qur'an for those introspective readers.

Information for this article was taken from a paper written by Dr. Tariq Al Suwaidan, past Tulsan, and a Gary Miller speech from the website: Islaam.com

Or visit http://www.isgoc.com/aboutislam/science&islam/index.htm

Explore greatest scientists of Muslims



No


Scientist's Name

Work Area

Age/Birth

1
Jabir Ibn Haiyan (Geber)
Chemistry (Father of Chemistry)
Died 803 C.E.
2
Al-Asmai
Zoology, Botany
740 - 828
3
Al-Khwarizmi
Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography
770 - 840
4
Amr ibn Bahr
Zoology, Arabic Grammar,Lexicography
776-868
5
Ibn Ishaq
Philosophy, Physics, Optics, Medicine
800 - 873
6
Thabit Ibn Qurrah
Astronomy, Mechanics, Geometry
836 - 901
7
Abbas Ibn Firnas
Mechanics of Flight, Planetarium
Died 888
8
Ali Ibn Rabban
Medicine, Mathematics, Caligraphy
838 - 870
9
Al-Battani
mathematics, Trigonometry
858 - 929
10
Al-Farghani
Astronomy, Civil Engineering
CE 860
11
Al-Razi
Medicine, Ophthalmology, Smallpox
864 - 930
12
Al-Farabi
Sociology, Logic, Philosophy
870 - 950
13
Abul Hasan Ali
Geography, History
Died 957
14
Al-Sufi
Astronomy
903 - 986
15
Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahravi
Surgery, Medicine
936 - 1013
16
Muhammad Al-Buzjani
Mathematics, Astronomy, Geometry
940 - 997
17
Ibn Al-Haitham
Physics, Optics, Mathematics
965 - 1040
18
Al-Mawardi
Political Science, Sociology
972 - 1058
19
Abu Raihan
Astronomy, Mathematics
973-1048
20
Ibn Sina
Medicine, Philosophy, Mathematics
981 - 1037
21
Al-Zarqali
Astronomy
1028 - 1087
22
Omar Al-Khayyam
Mathematics
1044 - 1123
23
Al-Ghazali
Sociology, Theology, Philosophy
1058 - 1111
24
Abu Bakr Muhammad
Philosophy, Medicine, Mathematics
1106 - 1138
25
Ibn Zuhr
Surgery, Medicine
1091 - 1161
26
Al-Idrisi
Geography
1099 - 1166
27
Ibn Rushd
Philosophy, Law, Medicine, Astronomy
1128 - 1198
28
Al-Bitruji
Astronomy
1140-1204

The Mother Mosque Of America


MMwelcome.jpg
Dr. Thomas B. Irving (left) and Imam Taha Tawil (right) welcome you

Imam.jpg
The Imam Message
All Praise is due to God Alone, we Praise Him and Ask for his help and guidance. I bear witness "there is no god but Allah Alone, and I bear witness that Muhammad is his last Prophet and Messenger."

Assalamu'alay-kum (Peace be upon you!).

Welcome to our newborn Mother Mosque with its renovations and restoration, which sparks new openness in the history of Cedar Rapids, with new understanding and leadership. Our revived Mother Mosque serves as a symbol of the roots of Islam in North America and especially in the State of Iowa.

The Mother Mosque is in IOWA, the hearthland of America, Cedar Rapids, Iowa where hospitality, generousity, and tolerance is well known facts... From fields of tulips...to the field of dreams...From covered bridges....to covered wagon...From America's castles...to classic barns...From fields of corns...to Quacker Oat...From Czech Museum..to the Mother Mosque of America...IOWA welcomes you.

The Mother Mosque stands today as a piece of American history, monument, and a landmark; it also symbolize a new openness, as it opens its doors to all those who are seeking knowledge about Islam and Muslims, about the Arab world and its culture, or general information about the Middle East.

On behalf of the Mother Mosque, we welcome all of you to come and explore not only IOWA the heartland of America, but also the first mosque that was built for Muslims in America. We hope that you can visit us or call upon us for all your spiritual and intellectual needs.

Imam Taha A. Tawil.

Refer to http://www.mothermosque.org/

Al Masudi's Map of the World (871-957 CE). Evidence of Muslim presence in the Americas before Columbus


Muslim historian and geographer Al Masudi (871-957CE) wrote in his book "The Meadows of Gold and the Quarries of Jewels" that during the rule of the Muslim Caliph of Spain Abdullah ibn Muhammad (888-912CE), a Muslim navigator Ibn Aswad crossed the Atlantic in 889 CE, reached an unknown territory (ard majhoola) and returned with fabulous treasures.

In Al Masudi's map of the world there is a large area in "the ocean of darkness and fog" (Atlantic ocean) which he referred to as the "Unknown Territory" (identified today as South America).

Deeper Roots:
Muslims in the Americas and the Caribbean
From Before Columbus To the Present

Dr. Abdullah Hakim Quick
Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd, London, 1998.





Refer to wesite http://www.cambridgemuslims.info/DidYouKnow/

Medieval Islamic Coins found near Cambridge, MA
Evidence of Muslim presence in the Americas before Columbus

Medieval Islamic coins of North Africa from a buried hoard found in 1787, during road-building excavations between Cambridge and Malden, Massachusetts, USA. (Coins A and B)

From Saga America, Barry Fell, 1980, Published by Times books, New York, pages 26-27, 30.

We have, in fact, a long history of recovering ancient coins from American soil -- coins that, for some unaccountable reason, we have persistently contrived to ignore. Take, for example, the events that occurred some two centuries ago on a stretch of highway only a few minutes' drive from Massachusetts (USA).

The year was 1787, and the Reverend Thaddeus Mason Harris was making his way along the Cambridge-Malden road (now known as Route 16), probably turning over in his mind the prospects of the young Republic, whose very Constitution was that year being hammered out by the Congress summoned for that purpose. As he rounded a bend, he saw before him a cluster of people gathered about some unusual object. As he afterwards recorded in a letter to John Quincy Adams, he learned that some workmen had been engaged in widening a section of the road when a pickaxe had struck a horizontal flat slab of stone buried beneath the surface. When the slab was cleared and prized up, it was found to serve as a protective cover of a concealed cache of ancient coins, of which "two quarts" now lay exposed to view, hundreds of small square pieces of base metal (a copper-silver alloy) each bearing unknown signs stamped on the faces. The finders concluded that they were worthless, and passers-by, including Harris himself, were invited to take away handfuls. Hundreds of coins were thus dispersed."

Of all the people who carried off samples of these curiosities, Harris alone took steps to place the matter on record. After fruitless attempts to identify the inscriptions (actually Kufic, an ancient form of Arabic) and research in Harvard Library to no result, he had illustrations drawn and these, together with the account he sent to John Quincy Adams, were published by the American Academy of Arts and Science, in Boston. And there the matter rested for nearly two hundred years, until James Whittall, of the Early Sites Research Society, chanced upon the old report written by Harris and took steps to notify me and the American Numismatic Society."

Coin C: Smarkand coin struck in 903 CE and found at Gulland, Denmark.

Islamic coins have been found in hoards of hundreds in both America and Scandinavia. Some of the Islamic coins found in America may have been brought by Norsemen, as thousands of such coins of the ninth to the eleventh centuries are found in the soil of Scandinavia.

Coins A and B: Medieval Islamic coins of North Africa from a buried hoard found in 1787, during road-building excavations between Cambridge and Malden, Massachusetts.

Coin C:, coin of Smarkand struck in 903 AD and found at Gulland, Denmark. The central inscription reads: 'There is no god but Allah alone, and no partner for him.' The marginal inscription reads, 'In the name of Allah was coined this drachma [dirhem] in Samarqand.'

From Saga America, Barry Fell, 1980, Published by Times books, New York, pages 26-27, 30

This articel from http://www.cambridgemuslims.info/DidYouKnow/CambridgeMA/



Friday, 24 October 2008

The Mathematical Sciences and Physics

The Muslim mind has always been attracted to the mathematical sciences in accordance with the "abstract" character of the doctrine of Oneness which lies at the heart of Islam. The mathematical sciences have traditionally included astronomy, mathematics itself and much of what is called physics today. In astronomy the Muslims integrated the astronomical traditions of the Indians, Persians, the ancient Near East and especially the Greeks into a synthesis which began to chart a new chapter in the history of astronomy from the 8th century onward. The Almagest of Ptolemy, whose very name in English reveals the Arabic origin of its Latin translation, was thoroughly studied and its planetary theory criticized by several astronomers of both the eastern and western lands of Islam leading to the major critique of the theory by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and his students, especially Qutb al Din al-Shirazi, in the 13th century.

The Muslims also observed the heavens carefully and discovered many new stars. The book on stars of 'Abdal-Rahman al-Sufi was in fact translated into Spanish by Alfonso X el Sabio and had a deep influence upon stellar toponymy in European languages. Many star names in English such as Aldabaran still recall their Arabic origin. The Muslims carried out many fresh observations which were contained in astronomical tables called zij. One of the acutest of these observers was al-Battani whose work was followed by numerous others. The zij of al-Ma'mun observed in Baghdad, the Hakimite zij of Cairo, the Toledan Tables of al Zarqali and his associates, the Il-Khanid zij of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi observed in Maraghah, and the zij of Ulugh-Beg from Samarqand are among the most famous Islamic astronomical tables. They wielded a great deal of influence upon Western astronomy up to the time of Tycho Brahe. The Muslims were in fact the first to create an astronomical observatory as a scientific institution, this being the observatory of Maraghah in Persia established by al-Tusi. This was indirectly the model for the later European observatories. Many astronomical instruments were developed by Muslims to carry out observation, the most famous being the astrolabe. There existed even mechanical astrolabes perfected by Ibn Samh which must be considered as the ancestor of the mechanical clock.

Astronomical observations also had practical applications including not only finding the direction of Makkah for prayers, but also devising almanacs (the word itself being of Arabic origin). The Muslims also applied their astronomical knowledge to questions of time keeping and the calendar. The most exact solar calendar existing to this day is the Jalali calendar devised under the direction of 'Umar Khayyam in the 12th century and still in use in Persia and Afghanistan.

As for mathematics proper, like astronomy, it received its direct impetus from the Quran not only because of the mathematical structure related to the text of the Sacred Book, but also because the laws of inheritance delineated in the Quran require rather complicated mathematical solutions. Here again Muslims began by integrating Greek and Indian mathematics. The first great Muslim mathematician, al-Khwarazmi, who lived in the 9th century, wrote a treatise on arithmetic whose Latin translation brought what is known as Arabic numerals to the West. To this day guarismo, derived from his name, means figure or digit in Spanish while algorithm is still used in English. Al-Khwarazmi is also the author of the first book on algebra. This science was developed by Muslims on the basis of earlier Greek and Indian works of a rudimentary nature. The very name algebra comes from the first part of the name of the book of al-Khwarazmi, entitled Kitab al-jabr wa'l-muqabalah. Abu Kamil al-Shuja' discussed algebraic equations with five unknowns. The science was further developed by such figures as al-Karaji until it reached its peak with Khayyam who classified by kind and class algebraic equations up to the third degree.

The Muslims also excelled in geometry as reflected in their art. The brothers Banu Musa who lived in the 9th century may be said to be the first outstanding Muslim geometers while their contemporary Thabit ibn Qurrah used the method of exhaustion, giving a glimpse of what was to become integral calculus. Many Muslim mathematicians such as Khayyam and al-Tusi also dealt with the fifth postulate of Euclid and the problems which follow if one tries to prove this postulate within the confines of Eucledian geometry.

Another branch of mathematics developed by Muslims is trigonometry which was established as a distinct branch of mathematics by al-Biruni. The Muslim mathematicians, especially al-Battani, Abu'l-Wafa', Ibn Yunus and Ibn al-Haytham, also developed spherical astronomy and applied it to the solution of astronomical problems.

The love for the study of magic squares and amicable numbers led Muslims to develop the theory of numbers. Al-Khujandi discovered a particular case of Fermat's theorem that "the sum of two cubes cannot be another cube", while al Karaji analyzed arithmetic and geometric progressions such as:

1**3+2**3+3**3+...+n**3=(1+2+3+...+n)** 2

Al-Biruni also dealt with progressions while Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid al-Kashani brought the study of number theory among Muslims to its peak.

In the field of physics the Muslims made contributions in especially three domains. The first was the measurement of specific weights of objects and the study of the balance following upon the work of Archimedes. In this domain the writings of al-Biruni and al-Khazini stand out. Secondly they criticized the Aristotelian theory of projectile motion and tried to quantify this type of motion. The critique of Ibn Sina, Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdad), Ibn Bajjah and others led to the development of the idea of impetus and momentum and played an important role in the criticism of Aristotelian physics in the West up to the early writings of Galileo. Thirdly there is the field of optics in which the Islamic sciences produced in Ibn al-Haytham (the Latin Alhazen) who lived in the 11th century, the greatest student of optics between Ptolemy and Witelo. Ibn al-Haytham's main work on optics, the Kitab al-manazir, was also well known in the West as Thesaurus opticus. Ibn al-Haytham solved many optical problems, one of which is named after him, studied the property of lenses, discovered the camera obscura, explained correctly the process of vision, studied the structure of the eye, and explained for the first time why the sun and the moon appear larger on the horizon. His interest in optics was carried out two centuries later by Qutb al-Din al Shirazi and Kamal al-Din al-Farisi. It was Qutb al Din who gave the first correct explanation of the formation of the rainbow.

It is important to recall that in physics as in many other fields of science the Muslims observed, measured and carried out experiments. They must be credited with having developed what came to be known later as the experimental method.

Muslim Achievements in Science

Muslim mathematicians devised and developed algebra
Al-Khawarazmi used Arabic numerals which came to the west through his work-9th century.
Al-Razi described amd treated smallbox-10th century
Ibn Sina diagnosed and treated meningities-11th century
Ibn al-Haytham discovered the camera obscura- 11th century
Al-Birini described the Ganges Valley as a sedimentary basin-11th century
Muslims built the first observartory as a scientific institution-13th century
Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi explained the cause of the rainbow- 13th century
Ibn al-Nafis described the minor ciculation of the blood- 14th century.
Al-Kashani invented a computer machine- 15th century


Incorporated from the Magazine "Islam: A Global Civilization", prepared by Islamic Affairs Department, The Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington, D.C.

This article refer to website http://www.islamicity.com/

Caliph Abdul Al-Malik Archtecture

The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

architect

Abd al-Malik

location

Jerusalem

date

692-95

style

Islamic

construction

stone, ceramic tile. Mr A.C. Cresswell in his book Origin of the plan of the Dome of the Rock writes that those who built the mosque made use of the measurements of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The diameter of the dome of the mosque is 20m by 20cm and its height 20m by 48cm, while the diameter of the dome of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is 20m by 90cm and its’ height 21m by 5cm.

type

Mosque

The Dome of the Rock (Arabic:, translit.: Qubbat As-Sakhrah, translit.: Kipat Hasela, Turkish: Kubbetüs Sahra) is a notable Islamic shrine for pilgrimage in what Muslims call masjid al-Aqsa or the Noble Sanctuary (al-Haram al-Qudsi al-Sharif) — which Jews and Christians call Har ha-Bayit or the Temple Mount — it remains one of the best known landmarks of Jerusalem. It was built between 687 and 691 by the 9th Caliph, Abd al-Malik. It is often mistakingly referred to as Mosque of Umar, the actual mosque of Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab residing next to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.


Abd al-Malik instituted many reforms such as: making Arabic the official language of government across the entire empire, instituting a mint that produced a uniform set of aniconic currency, expansion and reorganization of postal service, repairing the damaged Kaaba and beginning the tradition of weaving a silk cover for the Kaaba in Damascus.

He also built the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, but parts of that city were also destroyed when Abd al-Malik's armies put down an uprising there. The Muslim scholar al-Wasiti reports this incidence:



“ When Abd al-Malik intended to construct the Dome of the Rock, he came from Damascus to Jerusalem. He wrote, "Abd al-Malik intends to build a dome (qubba) over the Rock to house the Muslims from cold and heat, and to construct the masjid. But before he starts he wants to know his subjects' opinion." With their approval, the deputies wrote back, "May Allah permit the completion of this enterprise, and may He count the building of the dome and the masjid a good deed for Abd al-Malik and his predecessors." He then gathered craftsmen from all his dominions and asked them to provide him with the description and form of the planned dome before he engaged in its construction. So, it was marked for him in the sahn of the masjid. He then ordered the building of the treasury (bayt al-mal) to the east of the Rock, which is on the edge of the Rock, and filled it with money. He then appointed Raja' ibn Hayweh and Yazid ibn Salam to supervise the construction and ordered them to spend generously on its construction. He then returned to Damascus. When the two men satisfactorily completed the house, they wrote to Abd al-Malik to inform him that they had completed the construction of the dome and al-Masjid al-Aqsa. They said to him "There is nothing in the building that leaves room for criticism." They wrote him that a hundred thousand dinars was left from the budget he allocated. He offered the money to them as a reward, but they declined, indicating that they had already been generously compensated. Abd al-Malik orders the gold coins to be melted and cast on the Dome's exterior, which at the time had a strong glitter that no eye could look straight at it. ”


The two engineers Yazid ibn Salam, a Jerusalemite, and Raja' ibn Hayweh, from Baysan, were ordered to spend generously on the construction. In his Book of the Geography, al-Maqdisi reported that seven times the revenue of Egypt was used to build the Dome. During a discussion with his uncle on why the Caliph spent lavishly on building the mosques in Jerusalem and Damascus.

The last years of his reign were generally peaceful. Abd al-Malik wanted to appoint his son al-Walid I as his successor, ignoring his father's orders to appoint Abd al-Malik's brother, Abd al-Aziz. However, Abd al-Malik accepted advice not to create disturbances by carrying out this design. It turned out to be unnecessary, as Abd al-Aziz died before Abd al-Malik. Abd al-Malik then had his sons al-Walid and Sulayman, in that order, accepted as heirs to the throne.

Refer to website http://www.islamic-architecture.info

The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire

The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire, 1539-1588
[London: Reaktion Books].

Mimar Koca Sinan (d. 1588), the 'Great Architect Sinan', was appointed chief royal architect to the Ottoman court by Sultan Süleyman I in 1539. During his fifty-year career he designed and constructed hundreds of buildings, including mosques, palaces, tombs, schools, madrasas, hospitals, hospices, caravanserais, aqueducts and bridges. The most celebrated of all Ottoman architects, Sinan is renowned in particular for his mosques, where his inventive experimentation with centralized domed spaces -- often compared with parallel developments in Renaissance Italy -- produced monuments in which the central dome appears weightless and the interior surfaces are bathed in light. His distinctive architectural idiom left its imprint on the Ottoman capital of Istanbul, and across the vast empire that extended from the Danube to the Tigris.



To view all available materials on Sinan in the ArchNet Digital Library, including scholarly articles, CAD files and images of monuments not listed below, visit the architects' page at http://archnet.org/library/parties/one-party.jsp?party_id=630.

Clicking on "thumbnails" below will show all 351 photographs and plans from the Necipoglu book, while users can also choose to browse all materials available on monuments listed in Necipoglu's book by clicking on any site name below.




Site Location Country
Adiliyya Mosque Aleppo, Halab Governorate Syria
Atik Valide Complex Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Behram Pasa Mosque Diyarbakir, Diyarbakir Province Turkey
Bosnali Mehmed Pasha Mosque Sofia, Sofiya Grad Region Bulgaria
Bostancibasi Iskender Pasa Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Çavusbasi Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Cenabi Ahmed Pasa Mosque Ankara, Ankara Province Turkey
Defterdar Ebulfazl Efendi Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Defterdar Mustafa Pasa Mosque Edirne, Edirne Province Turkey
Ferhad Pasa Mosque at Çatalca Çatalca, Istanbul Province Turkey
Ferhad Pasa Mosque at Kastamonu Kastamonu, Kastamonu Province Turkey
Ferruh Kethüda Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Firdevs Bey Mosque Isparta, Isparta Province Turkey
Haci Ahmed Pasa Mosque Kayseri, Kayseri Province Turkey
Haci Evhad Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Hadim Ali Pasa Complex Diyarbakir, Diyarbakir Province Turkey
Hadim Ibrahim Pasa Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Haseki Sultan Complex Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Haseki Sultan Mausoleum Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Hürrem Çavus Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Hüsrev Çelebi Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Iskender Pasa Mosque Diyarbakir, Diyarbakir Province Turkey
Kapiagasi Mahmud Aga Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Kara Ahmed Pasa Complex Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Khusruwiyya Mosque and Madrasa Aleppo, Halab Governorate Syria
Kiliç Ali Pasa Complex Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Köse Hüsrev Pasa Mosque Van, Van Province Turkey
Lala Hüseyin Pasa Mosque Kütahya, Kütahya Province Turkey
Lala Mustafa Pasa Mosque Erzurum, Erzurum Province Turkey
Mehmed Aga Complex Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Melek Ahmed Pasa Mosque Diyarbakir, Diyarbakir Province Turkey
Merkez Efendi Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Mesih Mehmed Pasa Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Mihrimah Sultan Complex at Edirnekapi Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Mihrimah Sultan Complex at Üsküdar Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Mimar Sinan Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Molla Çelebi Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Muradiye Complex Manisa, Manisa Province Turkey
Nisanci Mehmed Pasa Complex Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Odabasi Behruz Aga Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Osman Shah Mosque Trikala, Thessaly Region, Trikkala Department Greece
Pertev Mehmed Pasa Complex Izmit, Kocaeli Province Turkey
Piyale Pasa Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Rüstem Pasa Complex Tekirdag, Tekirdag Province Turkey
Rüstem Pasa Mausoleum Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Rüstem Pasa Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Sah Sultan Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Sehzade Complex Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Sehzade Mehmed Mausoleum Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Selimiye Complex Edirne, Edirne Province Turkey
Semiz Ali Pasa Mosque at Babaeski Babaeski, Kirklareli Province Turkey
Semiz Ali Pasa Mosque at Eregli Marmara Ereglisi, Tekirdag Province Turkey
Semsi Ahmed Pasa Complex Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Sinan Pasa Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Sokollu Kasim Bey Complex at Havsa Havsa, Edirne Province Turkey
Sokollu Mehmed Pasa Complex at Kadirga Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Sokollu Mehmed Pasa Complex at Payas Payas, Hatay Province Turkey
Sokollu Mehmed Pasa Madrasa Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Sokollu Mehmed Pasa Mosque at Azapkapi Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Sokollu Mehmet Pasa Complex at Lüleburgaz Lüleburgaz, Kirklareli Province Turkey
Sulayman I Complex Damascus, Dimashq Governorate Syria
Süleymaniye Complex Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Sultan Süleyman Bridge Büyükçekmece, Istanbul Province Turkey
Sultaniye Complex Karapinar, Konya Province Turkey
Tatar Khan Mosque Yevpatoriya, Crimea Autonomous Republic Ukraine
Tercüman Yunus Bey Mosque Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey
Zal Mahmud Pasa Complex Istanbul, Istanbul Province Turkey

Ottoman Turkish architecture

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul

The architecture of the Turkish Ottoman Empire forms a distinctive whole, especially the great mosques by and in the style of Sinan, like the mid-16th century Suleymaniye Mosque. For almost 500 years Byzantine architecture such as the church of Hagia Sofia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzadeh Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque.

The Ottomans achieved the highest level architecture in the Islamic lands hence or since. They mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as light and shadow. Islamic religious architecture which until then consisted of simple buildings with extensive decorations, was transformed by the Ottomans through a dynamic architectural vocabulary of vaults, domes, semidomes and columns. The mosque was transformed from being a cramped and dark chamber with arabesque-covered walls into a sanctuary of aesthetic and technical balance, refined elegance and a hint of heavenly transcendence

Early Ottoman period

With the establishment of the Ottoman empire, The years 1300-1453 constitute the early or first Ottoman period, when Ottoman art was in search of new ideas. This period witnessed three types of mosques: tiered, single-domed and subline-angled mosques. The Haci Ozbek Mosque (1333) in Iznik, the first important center of Ottoman art, is the first example of an Ottoman single-domed mosque.

Bursa Period (1299-1437)
The domed architectural style evolved from Bursa and Edirne. The Holy Mosque in Bursa was the first Seljuk mosque to be converted into a domed one. Edirne was the last Ottoman capital before Istanbul, and it is here that we witness the final stages in the architectural development that culminated in the construction of the great mosques of Istanbul. The buildings constructed in Istanbul during the period between the capture of the city and the construction of the Istanbul Beyazit Mosque are also considered works of the early period. Among these are the Fatih Mosque (1470), Mahmutpaşa Mosque, the tiled palace and Topkapi Palace. The Ottomans integrated mosques into the community and added soup kitchens, theological schools, hospitals, Turkish baths and tombs.

Classical period (1437-1703)


Selimiye Mosque is considered to be the masterpiece of Sinan

During the classical period mosque plans changed to include inner and outer courtyards. The inner courtyard and the mosque were inseparable. The master architect of the classical period, Mimar Sinan, was born in 1492 in Kayseri and died in Istanbul in the year 1588. Sinan started a new era in world architecture, creating 334 buildings in various cities. Mimar Sinan's first important work was the Şehzade Mosque completed in 1548. His second significant work was the Süleymaniye Mosque and the surrounding complex, built for Kanuni Sultan Süleyman. The Selimiye Mosque in Edirne was built during the years 1568-74, when Sinan was in his prime as an architect.The Rüstempaşa, Mihriman Sultan, Ibrahimpasa Mosques and the Şehzade, Kanuni Sultan Suleyman, Hurrem Sultan and Selim II mausoleums are among Sinan's most renowned works.

Circular, wavy and curved lines are predominant in the structures of this period. Major examples are Nur-u Osmaniye Mosque, Zeynep Sultan Mosque, Laleli Mosque, Fatih Tomb, Laleli Cukurcesme Inn, Birgi Cakiraga Mansion, Aynali Kavak Summerplace, and Selimiye Barracks. Mimar Tahir is the important architect of the time.


Empire Period (1808-1876)


Çırağan Palace is an example of Empire period

Nusretiye Mosque, Ortaköy Mosque, Sultan Mahmut Tomb, Galata Lodge of Mevlevi Derviches, Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace, Sadullah Pasha Yalı, Kuleli Barracks are the important examples of this style developed parallel with the westernization process. Architects from the Balyan family were the leading ones of the time.

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