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Isnin, 6 September 2010

Islamic Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical Engineering

Water-Raising Machines

The saqiya was widely used in the Muslim world from the earliest days onwards. It was introduced to the Iberian Peninsula by the Muslims, where it was massively exploited. Its Maximum expansion in the Valencian Country took place throughout the eighteenth century. In 1921 their number amounted to 6000 installed in the Orchards of Valencia, which supplied water to 17866 hectares. Throughout the twentieth century they have been replaced by hydraulic pumps.

A saqiva in Ma'arrat al-Nu'man near Aleppo

Today, this ancient water raising machine is seen in a few farming areas in the northern Mexican states. It also survives in the Yucatan Peninsula. It is reported that one group of farmers in Veracruz, Mexico is reverting back to using the traditional technology of the saqiya.


Irrigation and Water Supply

With the spread of the Islamic Empire westward, agricultural and irrigation methods and techniques were introduced into the western regions of Islam. The rulers of al-Andalus and many of their followers were of Syrian origin, and the climate, terrain and hydraulic conditions in parts of southern Spain resemble those of Syria. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that the irrigation methods - technical and administrative - in Valencia closely resemble the methods applied in the Ghuta of Damascus.

There is a unanimous opinion among historians that the present Spanish irrigation systems of Valencia and Andalusia are of Muslim origin. In 1960 a celebration was held in Valencia commemorating the ‘Millennium of the Waters’. It expressed public recognition of the establishment of the irrigation system, and specifically of the Tribunal of Waters during the reign of 'Abd al-Rahman III'.

The irrigation system that had been instituted in the days of the caliphs in Valencia was perpetuated and confirmed under the succeeding dynasties, until, when the Christian conquerors appeared in the thirteenth century, it recommended itself for adoption, backed by the experienced benefits of several centuries. The Arabic names used in the irrigation systems give distinct proofs of the Moorish origin of the irrigation systems in eastern Spain.

How Islam Came to Germany

The sun sets behind the Yanidze complex in Dresden, the mosque-inspired former home to a tobacco factory.

The history of Islam in Germany

Goes back as far as the 8th century. From the reign of Charlemagne, to Goethe's literature, to the Turkish guest workers who arrived in the 1950s and 60s and made a home here, the Muslim religion has been a part of German culture for hundreds of years.

Islam in Germany is believed to date back to the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. In the fabled tales of "1001 Nights," al-Rashid is said to have wandered the streets of Baghdad at night dressed as a merchant in order to learn about the needs of his subjects. Various sources relate that Charlemagne established diplomatic relations with this Abbasid ruler in the year 797 or 801. Both sides reportedly guaranteed freedom of belief for members of the other religion in their respective empires. It is in any case an established historic fact that the elephant Abul Abbas died in 810. This magnificent animal had been sent by the caliph to Charlemagne in Aachen as a token of his friendship.

Islam in Germany

Germany has the largest Muslim population in Western Europe after France. Approximately 3.0 to 3.5 million Muslims live in Germany, and 80% of them do not have German citizenship; 608,000 are German citizens.1 100,000 of them are German converts to Islam.2 Recent statistics show a continuing increase in their numbers.

70% of the Muslim population is of Turkish origin.4 Turkish immigration to Germany began in the 1960s in response to a German labor shortage. While these laborers were expected to leave Germany after their work was completed, half of them ended up staying in the country. At first the immigration was predominantly men, but they were eventually followed by their wives and families.5 Muslims settled around the industrial areas of Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, Munich, Nurnberg, Darmstadt and Goppingen, and Hamburg. Only a few Muslims live on the territory of the former German Democratic Republic.

Historical struggle between Islam & Kufr

Thus we see that the struggle between Islam and kufr is an ongoing one and is an undeniable reality. It is a struggle rooted in ideology, and will necessarily exist whenever two people carry competing worldviews and seek to implement them in life. As Allah makes it clear, in plain language,

“Verily, the disbelievers are ever unto you open enemies.” [al-Nisa’: 101]

That is, those disbelievers who seek to fight against you and seek to take people away from the deen of Allah (swt) are open enemies to you.

n line with the open, the final destruction of the Khilafah State was not the first time the Europeans had attacked the Muslims. The first attack came much earlier in the form of the Crusades. The Crusaders came south into the Muslims lands in search of holy conquest and to fight the ‘infidel’ Muslims whom they considered a ‘vile’ race.

Addressing the Council of Clermont in 1095, Pope Urban II rallied the Christians of Europe to a religious war against the Muslims, saying:

“Most beloved brethren: Urged by necessity, I, Urban, by the permission of God chief bishop and prelate over the whole world, have come into these parts as an ambassador with a divine admonition to you…O sons of God, as the most of you have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked your brethren in the East and have conquered the territory of Romania…On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ’s heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot- soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends.”

Pedang nano pejuang Islam

Diceritakan, hebatnya pedang Salahuddin Al-Ayubi mampu membelah saputangan sutera yang melayang jatuh ke atasnya, mampu memotong pedang lawan dan mampu membelah batu tanpa ia menjadi tumpul.

Sejauh mana kita semua mengenali sudut hidup pahlawan Islam terunggul lewat peperangan salib, Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi? Beliau sangat terkenal sebagai sosok kukuh yang berjaya menghantar rasa gerun dan hormat kepada tentera-tentera musuh. Lebih manis lagi, peribadi inilah yang telah memimpin pembebasan Tanah Suci ketiga umat Islam daripada cengkaman Kristian hampir seratus tahun lamanya.

Prof Dr. Peter Paufler and kumpulannya di Teknikal Universiti Dresden, Jerman apabila mereka menemui TIUB KARBON NANO (carbon nanotube) di dalam pedang yang digunakan oleh Salahuddin Al-Ayubi dan tentera-tentera Islam dalam peperangan salib. Carbon nanotube inilah yang telah menjadikan pedang-pedang pejuang Islam sangat istimewa; SANGAT TAJAM tetapi MUDAH LENTUR. Penemuan ini telah diterbitkan oleh jurnal Nature (antara jurnal saintifik paling berpengaruh di dunia) pada tahun 2006


E-Numbers represent specific food additives, used by the food industry in the manufacture of various food products. These E-Numbers have been formulated by the European Economic Community (EEC) and are universally adopted by the food industry worldwide.

It is known that many E-numbers contain unlisted haraam ingredients in them. Generally additives derived from animals and insects.

E-numbers are reference numbers used by the European Union to facilitate identification of food additives. All food additives used in the European Union are identified by an E-number. The "E" stands for "Europe" or "European Union". Normally each food additive is assigned a unique number, though occasionally, related additives are given an extension ("a", "b", or "i", "ii") to another E-number.

The Commission of the European Union assigns e-numbers after the additive is cleared by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF), the body responsible for the safety evaluation of food additives in the European Union. The convention for assigning E-numbers is:

100-199 food colors
200-299 preservatives
300-399 antioxidants, phosphates, and complexing agents
400-499 thickeners, gelling agents, phosphates, humectants, emulsifiers
500-599 salts and related compounds
600-699 flavor enhancers
700-899 not used for food additives (used for feed additives)
900-999 surface coating agents, gases, sweeteners
1000-1399 miscellaneous additive
1400-1499 starch derivatives