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Jumaat, 18 Mac 2011

Uthmaniyah Advance Navy Weapon

In 1321 the Ottoman fleet made its firstlandings on Thrace in southeastern Europe, and vastly contributed to the expansion of the Empire's territories on theEuropean continent. The Ottoman navy was one of the first to use cannons, and the Battle of Zonchio in 1499 wentdown in history as the first naval battle where cannons were used on ships. It was also the Ottoman navy whichinitiated the conquest of North Africa, with the addition of Algeria and Egypt to the Ottoman Empire in 1517.

The Sultani Cannon, a very heavy bronze muzzle-loading cannon of type used by Ottoman Empire in the siege of Constantinople, 1453 AD.

The Battle of Preveza in 1538 and the Battle of Djerba in 1560 marked the apex of Ottoman naval domination in theMediterranean Sea. The Ottomans also confronted the Portuguese forces based in Goa at the Indian Ocean innumerous battles between 1538 and 1566. In 1553, the Ottoman admiral Salih Reis conquered Morocco and thelands of North Africa beyond the Strait of Gibraltar, extending Ottoman territory into the Atlantic Ocean. In 1566 theSultan of Aceh asked for support against the Portuguese and declared allegiance to the Ottoman Empire, which sentits Indian Ocean fleet under Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis to Sumatra. The fleet landed at Aceh in 1569, and the event markedthe easternmost Ottoman territorial expansion.

The Chinese "Wu Ching Tsung Yao", written by Tseng Kung-Liang in 1044, provides encyclopedia references to a variety of mixtures which included petrochemicals, as well as garlic and honey. A slow match for flame throwing mechanisms using the siphon principle and for fireworks and rockets are mentioned. Academics argue the Chinese wasted little time in applying gunpowder to warfare, and they produced a variety of gunpowder weapons, including flamethrowers, rockets, bombs, and mines, before inventing guns as a projectile weapon.[21] Invention of gunpowder preceded that of firearm.There was once a great deal of confusion and controversy surrounding the invention of firearms, but it is now generally accepted that firearms originated in China. Although there is no solid evidence for firearms in Europe before the 1300s, archeologists have discovered a gun in Manchuria dating from the 1200s, and a historian has identified a sculpture in Sichuan dating from the 1100s that appears to represent a figure with a firearm. Since all the other evidence points to Chinese origins, it is safe to conclude that this was in fact the case. The Europeans certainly had firearms by the first half of the 1300s.

The Arabs obtained firearms in the 1300s too, and the Turks, Iranians, and Indians all got them no later than the 1400s, in each case directly or indirectly from the Europeans. The Koreans adopted firearms from the Chinese in the 1300s, but the Japanese did not acquire them until the 1500s, and then from the Portuguese rather than the Chinese. The time frame of the spread of firearms corresponded well with the Mongol's ruling of China (Yuan dynasty) when cultural and technological exchange between China and other Mongolian ruled territories were promoted. Therefore, from all the sources involving the alchemy (chemistry) of gunpowder and the invention and the spread of firearms,it seems that the Chinese invention of gunpowder was hundreds of years before other cultures obtaining the knowledge (or invention as some claim) of gunpowder.

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